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There are various substances and chemicals including drugs, poisons, and other pharmaceuticals in the Eddings' world, especially in the Belgariad.

Chemicals, Poisons, and other Pharmaceuticals
Name Effects and Description
Adara's rose Referred to as the "Sovereign Specific" by Cyradis in King of the Murgos. This is the lopsided pale lavender flower Garion created for Adara in Castle of Wizardry and cures even incurable poisons such as Thalot.
Amber liquid Mild relaxant and sedative, induces sleep.
Aphrodisiacs Nyissans know of many aphrodisiacs, even exotic ones.
Athal Physically addictive Nyissan drug that affects the blood. If the victim doesn't take more, he or she dies.
Athsat A very deadly poison, although it only activates if the victim becomes emotional or agitated. Otherwise, it flushes out of the system after 24 hours. Most Nyissan smugglers won't touch Athsat, so it's seldom available in other countries, and always at a premium price ("very expensive") and most Nyissans wouldn't part with it. This was one of the poisons used in the Tolnedran succession in Queen of Sorcery.
Bitter herbs Ariana administers this, infusing the leaves/herbs into a tea. Soporific. Ingestee will sleep until rested.
Black leaf Oral contact with this leaf induces a seizure or causes strong muscles spasms. The smoke from burning the leaf is very dangerous. Must not be stored in porous containers, and should only be handled with tongs or leather gloves. Burn both afterward. Polgara brushed this on Belgarath's lips to save his life in Castle of Wizardry.
Calming liquid (described as dark blue thick syrup in Enchanter's End Game) Sadi kept some of this in a silver flask for travel (in King of the Murgos, although Sadi says that it tastes bad) or in a crystal decanter. Immediately causes euphoric calm. Prevents headaches and provides immunity from fear (e.g., Polgara's frightening illusions). It does this without dulling the person's mental faculties.
Gleaming red liquid Even a single drop of this liquid induces truthfulness and makes the victim expound on any topic.
Hallucinogens Nyissans have access to a plethora of hallucinogenic compounds and are able to discover others in their habitat. They come in both powder and liquid form. None are mentioned by name. Some of the effects mentioned include unusual bravery, "seeing butterflies" and trying to walk up walls.
Hangover cure If a person is about to ingest alcohol or has recently ingested alcohol within the last hour, this clear liquid causes vomiting for several minutes, gradually diminishing into dry heaving as the stomach is emptied. A drunk person will no longer be affected by alcohol but will have a mild hangover.
Issus' mixture (Poison) A very deadly poison which appears as a colorless, nearly odorless liquid. There is a faint taste of lemon associated, which a trained person can recognize. The antidote also leaves the person feeling weak and light-headed for some time.
Kaldiss Physically addictive liquid. When ingested, increases physical lust and relaxes inhibitions. Burns the blood; victim must ingest more.
Karandese fungus Burned in Karandese religious rites causing hallucinations. The religious rites may involve demons. The fumes affect the senses as a hallucinogen, possibly with similar effects to LSD.
Miseth An excellent painkiller that also acts as both very strong aphrodisiac and inhibition suppressor. (Nyissans don't use it as a painkiller because of the aphrodisiac / inhibition lowering side-effects.) It is described as a deep purple liquid in Sorceress of Darshiva.
Naladium Sedative. Sadi suggested it to Polgara when Ce'Nedra had a hysterical fit brought on by Zandramas' tampering in the Demon Lord of Karanda.
Nephara Thick green liquid that relaxes the will (such that sorcerors may not use their talent) and encourages truthfulness. It has a very foul (after-)taste. Polgara mentions "it's best to lead them rather gently up to the important things" (Demon Lord of Karanda).
Odek A poison that is absorbed through the skin (mentioned in Polgara the Sorceress).
Oret When a drop or two is consumed, causes the person to talk too much and encourages truth, but is quite hard on the heart. Those with weak hearts can die, coughing up blood. A higher dose (two or three drops) can relax a hysterical person, even causing sleep. This is described as a "clear yellow liquid" (King of the Murgos and Seeress of Kell) as well as a "dark blue liquid" (Demon Lord of Karanda). Might be some confusion here.
Painkiller Polgara gave this to Adara after pulling the arrow out of her. Ariana didn't use this, so it's possible that only Polgara keeps a supply on hand. Stops pain almost immediately.
Salmissra's poison When the Alorns all but destroyed Nyissa, Salmissra (Ilessa) took this to end her life. It tastes foul, but it's completely painless. It is not immediate but it is completely deadly. It causes slurring of speech and eyes to be unfocused and eventually glazed. If there is an antidote, neither Belgarath nor Beldin knew about it.
Sedatives While Ariana mentioned she knew of a few, they did not have a calming effect if the patient was too agitated -- and would then be dangerous. Polgara knew of at least that could be administered without harm. Sadi had one that would leave the person deliriously happy for several minutes, then put them to sleep for days.
Small vial of Thick blue liquid It's not certain whether this is the same or different from Calming liquid or the thick blue liquid causing euphoric calm. Sadi has this small vial and mentions two drops would cause the recipient to be so happy that he won't care where anyone is going.
Snake venom Most if not all Nyissan snake venoms are lethal to one degree or another. No snake venom is known to cause other effects. Nyissans have antidotes for several types, but even they haven't cataloged all the species of snakes in the world. The known antidotes act the same as the antidote to Issus' mixture.
Thalot Very slow-acting (i.e., over weeks) completely fatal poison with no known antidote (prior to the creation of Adara's Rose). It infects every cell of the body, such that not even sorcery can draw it out. Causes hysteria, delirium and convulsions similar to epilepsy after the first week, which increase in frequency as the poison continues its effects. There is a foul smell associated with Thalot, which anyone will notice on the victim during and for about ten minutes after a convulsion.
Thick blue liquid Mentioned above as Calming liquid. Immediately causes euphoric calm, without dulling the mental facilities and is psychologically addictive.
Throat sweller This is the substance with which Sadi anointed Naradas' spoon. It causes the throat to swell shut, preventing any air from getting to the lungs. There is a Suffocation Antidote that restores breathing, but the victim still must deal with the effects of nearly suffocating.
Yellow powder Acrid, eye-watering powder. When placed in boiling water, gives off awful fumes that act as a stimulant (causes person smelling fumes to wake up) but has the side effect of coughing. The person may not be cognitive upon wakening up.
Various colored liquid narcotics Count Dravor, in the Queen of Sorcery, was being drugged by Y'diss. There seems to be a progression of effect and addition. Count Dravor mentions that the green gives nice dreams but tastes bad, and the red tastes better but the dreams aren't so nice. Y'diss mentions that the next few are blue, yellow, and black. Count Dravor under the influence is either sleepy or dreamy with slurred speech.
Sadi's "Recreation" poisons Deemed "recreational" by Belgarion in a conversation with Zakath about limiting Sadi's poison. Two of these are revealed in the Demond Lord of Karanda, one working like a Cupid's Arrow, another causing the victim to attempt extremely "backward" or stupid ideas, like walking up walls.